Indian History

Capital of Chola Empire

What was the capital of Cholas?
a) Kanchi
b) Tanjore
c) Badami
d) Ellora

Ans: ( b )

Puhar:- Puhar also known as Poompuhar is a town in the Nagapattinam district in the southern Indian state of Tamil Nadu. It was once a flourishing ancient port city known as Kaveri pattinam, which for a while served as the capital of the Early Chola kings in Tamilakam. Puhar is located near the end point of the Kaveri river, aside the sea coast. It is mentioned in the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea.

Thanjavur:-The city first rose to prominence during the reign of Mutharaiyar when it served as the capital of the empire. Vijayalaya conquered Thanjavur from the Mutharayar king Elango Mutharayar and built a temple dedicated to Hindu goddess Nisumbhasudani. When the Chola Empire began to decline in the 13th century, the Pandyas from the south invaded and captured Thanjavur twice, first during 1218–19 and then during 1230. Thanjavur was eventually annexed along with the rest of the Chola kingdom by the Pandya king Maravarman Kulasekara Pandyan I (1268–1308) in 1279 and the Chola kings were forced to accept the suzerainty of the Pandyas. The Pandyas ruled Thanjavur from 1279 to 1311 when their kingdom was raided by the forces of Malik Kafur (1296–1306) and later annexed by the Delhi Sultanate.

Gangaikonda cholapuram:- The city was founded by Rajendra Chola I to commemorate his victory over the Pala Dynasty. He established Gangaikonda Cholapuram as his capital. After Rajendra Chola moved his capital to Gangaikonda Cholapuram, Thanjavur lost its importance.

Uraiyur Uraiyur is also mentioned as the capital of the ancient great Chola King Karikalan and Mutharaiyar before the 1st century until the dynasty was revived by Vijayalaya Chola.

Thiruvarur:- Thiruvarur was one of the five traditional capitals of the Chola empire and the history of town revolves around the Thyagarajaswamy temple. Thiruvarur is mentioned in the saiva canonical work, Inscriptions from the temple indicate Thiruvarur as the capital of Kulothunga Chola I (1070–1120 CE), during which the town emerged a centre of saivism.