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Warren Hastings

Warren Hastings:(1773-1785):-

Warren Hastings joined the English East India Company as a writer at the age of 18. Later on, he was appointed the Resident of Kassim Bazar where he showed that he was a man of parts. When the place was captured by Siraj-ud-Daula, he was captured but he managed to escape. In 1761, he was made a member of the Calcutta Council. He went home for a few years and came back as a member of the Madras Council. After the retirement of Cartier, he was appointed the Governor of Bengal in 1772. After the passing of the Regulation act, 1773 Warren Hastings the then Governor of Bengal was appointed as Governor General of Bengal. He supported Sir William Jones in forming the Asiatic Society of Bengal in 1785.

Warren Hastngs-Administrative Reforms:-

Hastings abolished the Dual System that had been established by Robert Clive. In the Dual System, the company had Diwani rights (rights to collect revenue) and the Nizam or Indian chiefs had the administrative authority.He introduced the system of auctioning the right of collecting the Revenue in Bengal and Bihar. But it was failed. Warren Hastings reduced the Nawab’s allowance of 32 lakhs of rupees to half that amount. He also stopped the annual payment of 26 lakhs given to the MughalEmperor. A Board of Revenue was established at Calcutta to supervise the collection ofrevenue. English Collectors were appointed in eachdistrict. He made Calcutta as his capital and shifted the treasury of the company from Murshidabad to Calcutta.

Warren Hastings-Judicial Reforms

Each district was provided with a civil court Under the Collector and a criminal court under an Indian Judge. To hear appeals from the district courts two appellate courts, one for civil cases and another for criminal cases, were established at Calcutta. The highest civil court of appeal was called Sadar Diwani Adalat which was to be presided over by the Governor and two judges recruited from among the members of his council. Similarly, the highest appellate criminal court was known as Sadar Nizamat Adalat which was to function under an Indian judge appointed by the Governor-in-Council. Experts in Hindu and Muslim laws were provided to assist thejudges. Provision was made in the Regulating Act for the establishment of a Supreme Court at Calcutta consisting of a Chief Justice and three junior judges. In 1774, the Supreme Court was established by a Royal Charter. It was to be independent of the Governor-general in Council.

The events that took place during his period are: Rohilla War; second Mysore War: first Maratha War: Nandakumar episode; Pitt's India Act, 1784; He controlled the sanyasi bandits who kindnap the Children.

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