Indian History
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Sikhs-Ranjit Singh

Ranjit Singh was born in 1780. His ambition was to built a strong Sikh kingdom. He destroyed the Afghan supremacy over Punjab. He had the title of 'Raja'. In 1806 he crossed Sutlez river with large army and brought Patiala under his control. To conclude a peace treaty with Ranjit Singh, the Governor General Lord Minto sent Metcalfe to negotiate with him. As a result the treaty of Amritsar was concluded in April 1809. He occupied Wandi, Jeera, Kangra, Attock, Multan and Kashmir. The rulers of Ambala, Kaithal, and Kalsia agreed to be as his feudatories. He was died on 27th June, 1839.

Ranjit Singh was good administrator. He divided the kingdom into four provinces. They are Lahore, Multan, Kashmir and Peshawar. The head of the province was called Wazir. The provinces were divided in parganas. Kadar was the head of Pargana. The Parganas were again divided into Taluqs. The Taluq consisted 100-150 villages. Panchayats looked after village administration and also settled disputes. The special officers appointed to try the cases were called 'Adalats'.

He maintained powerful army. It consisted three categories:

1. Fauz-i-Am. It was standing army
2. Fauz-i-Khas. It was special army.
3. Fauz-i-Bekahwayid. It was unorganized army.

Indian History

Indus Valley Civilization Early Vedic Civilization Later Vedic Civilization Buddhism Jainism 16 Mahajanapadas Rise of Magadha Haryanka-Dynasty Sisunaga Dynasty Nandas Alexander Invasions on India Mauryan Empire Sungas Kanvas Indo-Greeks Guptas Harshavardhana Satavahanas Sangam Age Kushans-Kanishka Badami Chalukyas Kalyani Chalukyas Pallavas Cholas Rashtrakutas Muslim Invasions Rajputs Delhi Sultans Qutb-Ud-din-Aibak Iltutmish Balban Alauddin Khilji Muhammad Bin Tughluq Mughal Empire Babar Humayun Akbar Akbar Administration Jahangir Nurjahan Shah Jahan Taj Mahal Aurangzeb Sher Shah Bahmani Sultans Vijayanagara Empire Marathas Sikhs-Guru Nanak Sikhs-Ranjit Singh Hoysalas Jats Kakatiyas Kalachuris Later Pandyas Yadavas Portuguese British French Dutch Danes Anglo French Revalry First Carnatic War Second Carnatic War Third Carnatic War Battle of Plassey 1957 Battle of Buxar Expansion of British Empire First Anglo-Mysore War Second Anglo-Mysore War Third Anglo-Mysore War Fourth Anglo-Mysore War Tippu Sultan Mysore Kingdom First Anglo-Maratha War Second Anglo-Maratha War Third Anglo-Maratha War Lord Warren Hastings Lord Cornwallis Lord Wellesley Lord William Bentinck Lord Dalhousie Subsidiary Alliance-Nizam Nizam Ul Mulk Later Mughals-Bahadur Shah Oudh Kingdom Travencore Kingdom Socio-Religious Movements 1857 Revolt 1857 Revolt-Results Sambalpur Revolt Sanyasi Revolt Rippon Lord Curzon Vandemataram Movemement Reunification of Bengal Home Rule Movement Rowlatt Satyagraha Khilafat Movement Non Cooperation Movement Chauri-Chaura Incident Civil Disobedience Movement Quit India Movement Rise of Nationalism Societies-Organizations Indian National Congress Moderates Surath Congress 1907 Lucknow Pact Muslim League Pakistan Extrimists Bal Gangadhar Tilak Lala Lajapathi Roy Bipin Chandra Pal Netaji Subhas Chandrabose Mahatma Gandhi Champaran Satyagraha Ahmadabad Mill Strike Kheda Satyagraha Communal Award Gandhi Irwin Pact Swaraj Party Gadhar Party Revol. Nationalism-Maharashtra Revolutionary Nationalism-Bengal Hindusthan Socialist Republic Ass Lahore Conspiracy Case Kakori Conspiracy Case Jallian Wallah Bagh Massacre Nehru Report 1928 Minto Morley Reforms Montague Chelmsford Reforms Govt. of Indian Act 1935 Montague Declaration Constituent Assembly Elections Atlee Declaration Cabinet Mission Crips Mission Round Table Conferences Simon Commission Wavell Plan Lord Mountbatten Boundary Commission Partition of India