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Sikhs-Ranjit Singh

Ranjit Singh was born in 1780. His ambition was to built a strong Sikh kingdom. He destroyed the Afghan supremacy over Punjab. He had the title of 'Raja'. In 1806 he crossed Sutlez river with large army and brought Patiala under his control. To conclude a peace treaty with Ranjit Singh, the Governor General Lord Minto sent Metcalfe to negotiate with him. As a result the treaty of Amritsar was concluded in April 1809. He occupied Wandi, Jeera, Kangra, Attock, Multan and Kashmir. The rulers of Ambala, Kaithal, and Kalsia agreed to be as his feudatories. He was died on 27th June, 1839.

Ranjit Singh was good administrator. He divided the kingdom into four provinces. They are Lahore, Multan, Kashmir and Peshawar. The head of the province was called Wazir. The provinces were divided in parganas. Kadar was the head of Pargana. The Parganas were again divided into Taluqs. The Taluq consisted 100-150 villages. Panchayats looked after village administration and also settled disputes. The special officers appointed to try the cases were called 'Adalats'.

He maintained powerful army. It consisted three categories:

1. Fauz-i-Am. It was standing army
2. Fauz-i-Khas. It was special army.
3. Fauz-i-Bekahwayid. It was unorganized army.

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