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Sher Shah Administration

      Sher Shah was not only a great conquerer but also a great administrator. He introduced a number of reforms during the short period of five years of his reign. The structure of Government of Shershah was highly centralized. The king was the head of the government and excercised all powers. The empire of Sher Shah was divided into Sarkars. 47 Sarkars were existed during the period of Sher Shah. sarkars were again divided into Parganas. The king was assisted by four ministers in administration. They were:
1. Diwan-i-Wazi: He was the head of revenue and financial departments and supervises other ministers.
2. Diwan-i-Ariz: He was the minister of army. He looked after the matters of recruiting, training, decipline and organization of troops.
3. Diwani-Risalat: He was the minister of foreign affairs and was responsible for maintaining good relations with foreign countries.
4. Diwan-i-Insha: It was the ministry of royal proclamation.
In addition to the above Diwan-i-Qaza(Judicial Department) and Diwan-i-Barid(Intelligence wing) were also existed. Chief Quazi was the incharge of Diwan-i- Qaza and Barids report the important incidents to the king.

      Munsif-in-chief and Shiqdar-in-chief were the officers of the Sarkars. Munsif-in-chief was a civil officer and looked after the judicial and revenue matters of the Sarkars. Munsif-in-chief maintained the law and order in the Sarkar. The Parganas were looked after by the four officers. The were Shiqdar, Amin, Chaudari and Patwari. Sher Shah rejected the Mansabdari system and recruited soldiers directly. He fixed the salaries of soldiers and gave promotions for faithful service. He maintained strict decipline in the army. He introduced the practice of taking descriptive rolls and branding of horses. He appointed Hindus to the posts of high category in the army. He maintained highly efficient police organization. Chief Shiqdar in Sarkar was responsible for peace in the Sarkar and his subordinates had the same duties in Parganas.

      Sher Shah laind foundation for Ryotwari System. The revenue was collected directly from peasants and intermediaries were eliminated. 1/3 of the gross product was fixed as government shahre. The tax can be paid either in cash or kind. Loans were granted to farmers by the government in times of need. Agricultural lands were surveyed and divided into three categories i.e. good, middle, bad. Canal irrigation was introduced.

      King was the highest court of justice. Chief Qazi was the head of the Judicial department. Severe punishments were imposed for serious offences. Sher Shah introduced a scientific currency system. He introduced a new copper coin called "Dam" and silver rupee. Asharfi was his gold coin. He encouraged trade and commerce and abolished the internal customs. He improved transport facilities and laid four important road ways i.e. G.T. Karnal Road from Sonargaon(Bengal) to Attack(North West), from Agra to Mandu, from Agra to Jodhpur and from Lahore to Multan.

      
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