Indian History

Shah Jahan

Shah Jahan:
Shah Jahan was the son of Jahangir. He was born in January 1592 at Lahore. His original name was Khurram. He was born to Hindu mother. Shah Jahan was married to Muntaz Mahal. Muntaz Mahal was the daughter of Asaf Khan. When Jahangir died in Oct. 1627 Nur Jahan tried to put Shahriyar on the throne. But both of them were defeated. Asaf Khan, son-in-law- of Shah Jahan, backed Shah Jahan and put the Dawar Baksh on the throne till the arrival of Shah Jahan from Deccan. Shah Jahan arrived at Agra in Feb.1628 and ascended the throne by removing Dawar Baksh.
War with Bundela Rajputs:
Son of Bir Singh Bundela, Jujhar Singh showed signs of rebellion. Hence Jahangir sent armies to crush him. Jujhar Khan was surrendered and agreed to come to terms with Shah Jahan. But Jujhar Singh again revolted in 1635. He was pursued by Mughal troops and killed by Gonds.
War with Khan Jahan Lodi:
Khan Jahan Lodi was Viceroy of Deccan entered into an alliance with the ruler of Ahmednagar and revolted against Shah Jahan. Shah Jahan went to the Deccan personally to crush Khan Jahan Lodi. Shahji Bhonsla and Kaluji Bhonsla who were the allies of Khan Jahan surrendered to the Mughal armies. Khan Jahan Lodi failed to get the help of Bijapur. The chiefs of Bundel Kahand were also opposed him. He was killed in 1630 near the fort of Kalanjar.
War with Portuguese:
The activity of Portuguese settlers capturing orphan children of the Hindus and Muslims and forcibly converting them to Christianity was objectionable to Mughals. Shah Jahan also determined to crush their power. In 1631 the Governor of Bengal, Kasim Khan was ordered to punish the Portuguese and forces were sent for the purpose. The portuguese surrendered after the seize of Hugli which was lasted for three months.
Shah Jahan`s Deccan Policy:
During the period of Akbar Khandesh and a part of Ahmednagar was conquered. Jahangir also carried on a war with Malik Amber. Shah Jahan aimed to complete the conquest of Deccan. Malik Ambar of Ahmednagar was died in 1629. As a result of differences between Fateh Khan, the son of Malik Ambar and Sultan Murtaza Nizam. Fateh Khan was thrown into prison. Later Sultan Murtaza Nizam was murdered. The army of Bijapur attacked the fort of Daulatabad which was in possession of Fateh Khan. Mahabat Khan went to relief the fort on behalf of Shah Jahan. The fort was surrendered after the seize for two months. Thus the Nizam Shahi dynasty was ended in Ahmednagar in 1632.
War with Bijapur:
Shah Jahan sent written commands to the Bijapur and Golkonda rulers requiring to recognize his sovereignty. The Golkonda ruler recognized the sovereignty of Shah Jahan. But the Bijapur ruler was not recognized. Hence his territory was attacked by the Shah Jahan. Khan Dowran was entrusted the command and the capital of Bijapur was seized. On hopless condition Bijapur Sultan came to terms with the Mughals and a treaty was concluded accordingly.
Muhals lost Kandhar in 1623 during the period of Jahangir. Shah Jahan determined to recapture Kandhar and sent Aurangzeb for that purpose in 1649. Kandhar was seized for three months but there was no result. In 1652 Mughals invaded against Kandhar for second time under the command of Aurangzeb. But it was also failed. In 1653 third invasion against Kandhar took place under the command of Dara, son of Shah Jahan. But was also not successful. The failure of Mughal army to reconquer Kandhar in three efforts exposed its weakness and inefficiency.
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