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Rise of Magadha

       In 6th century B.C 16 kingdoms called Mahajanapadas arose. Among them Magadha was very powerful due to its geographical factors, natural resources etc.
The 16 Mahajanapadas are:
1. Anga
2. Magadha
3. Kasi
4. Vatsa
5. Kosala
6. Avanti
7. vajji
8. Malla
9. Surasena
10. Gandhara
11. Kamboja
12. Asmaka
13. Matsya
14. Panchala
15. Kuru
16. Chedi
       The main dynasties that ruled Magadha were: Haryanka dynasty, sisunaga dynasty, Nanda dynasty. The prominent rulers among Haryanka dynasty that ruled Magadha were: Bimbisara, Ajathashatru and Udayan. The capital of Magadha was first Girivajra or Rajgir. Later udayin shifted the capital to Pataliputra. Nanda dynasty was established by Mahanandin. But he was killed by Mahapamananda. Mahapadmananda established powerful empire and got titles `Ekashatra` and `Ekarat`. Dhanananda was last king in this dynasty. He was defeated by Chandragupta Maurya. Hatigumpha inscription mentioned that the Kalingas were defeated by Nandas. Nandas took away the statue of Jina as victory trophy. Pataliputra had the largest city area in the second urbanization of India.
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