Indian History

Viceroys-Lord Ripon

      Lord Ripon (1880-84)
No. Lord Ripon
1. Lord Ripon was appointed as viceroy of India in 1880.
2. He introduced a number of reforms for the welfare of people of India.
3. He enacted factories. As per this Act children having less the 12 years age were prohibited to work for more than 9 hours.
4. The vernacular press Act posted by Lord Litton in 1878 imposed several conditions on the news papers of regional languages Ripon repealed the vernacular press Act, in 1881.
5. As a result of which Indian press enjoyed freedom of expression.
6. Rippon introduced local self governments in India.
7. He was considered as father of local self Government in India.
8. A new regulation was passed in 1882.
9. As per this regulation village Panchayats were formed at village level.
10. District Boards, Taluq Boards and Municipalities also came into existence.
11. The function of local bodies were: Sanitation, roads, lights and education.
12. The Ilbert Bill introduced by the Ripon led to lot of controversy.
13. Hitherto, Indian Judges were not entitled to try the criminal cases in which Europeans were involved.
14. Ilbert, who was the law member of Ripon's viceroy council prepared a bill permitting Indian Judges to try the criminal cases in which Europeans were involved. This intended to remove racial discrimination. But it led to lot of criticism. Consequently the bill was amended.
15. As per the amended bill Indian Judge can try European criminal case only with the assistance of Jury consisting more than half of the European members.
16. Hunter commission was appointed by Ripon to introduce reforms in Education.
17. Irrigational canals and railway lines were also built during his period.
18. Age limit for Indians to enter into civil service was 19.
19. As per the aspirations of Indians Ripon recommended the government to increase the age limit to 21 years. The government accepted it and increased the age limit to 21 years.

Indian History

Indus Valley Civilization Early Vedic Civilization Later Vedic Civilization Buddhism Jainism 16 Mahajanapadas Rise of Magadha Haryanka-Dynasty Sisunaga Dynasty Nandas Alexander Invasions on India Mauryan Empire Sungas Kanvas Indo-Greeks Guptas Harshavardhana Satavahanas Sangam Age Kushans-Kanishka Badami Chalukyas Kalyani Chalukyas Pallavas Cholas Rashtrakutas Muslim Invasions Rajputs Delhi Sultans Qutb-Ud-din-Aibak Iltutmish Balban Alauddin Khilji Muhammad Bin Tughluq Mughal Empire Babar Humayun Akbar Akbar Administration Jahangir Nurjahan Shah Jahan Taj Mahal Aurangzeb Sher Shah Bahmani Sultans Vijayanagara Empire Marathas Sikhs-Guru Nanak Sikhs-Ranjit Singh Hoysalas Jats Kakatiyas Kalachuris Later Pandyas Yadavas Portuguese British French Dutch Danes Anglo French Revalry First Carnatic War Second Carnatic War Third Carnatic War Battle of Plassey 1957 Battle of Buxar Expansion of British Empire First Anglo-Mysore War Second Anglo-Mysore War Third Anglo-Mysore War Fourth Anglo-Mysore War Tippu Sultan Mysore Kingdom First Anglo-Maratha War Second Anglo-Maratha War Third Anglo-Maratha War Lord Warren Hastings Lord Cornwallis Lord Wellesley Lord William Bentinck Lord Dalhousie Subsidiary Alliance-Nizam Nizam Ul Mulk Later Mughals-Bahadur Shah Oudh Kingdom Travencore Kingdom Socio-Religious Movements 1857 Revolt 1857 Revolt-Results Sambalpur Revolt Sanyasi Revolt Rippon Lord Curzon Vandemataram Movemement Reunification of Bengal Home Rule Movement Rowlatt Satyagraha Khilafat Movement Non Cooperation Movement Chauri-Chaura Incident Civil Disobedience Movement Quit India Movement Rise of Nationalism Societies-Organizations Indian National Congress Moderates Surath Congress 1907 Lucknow Pact Muslim League Pakistan Extrimists Bal Gangadhar Tilak Lala Lajapathi Roy Bipin Chandra Pal Netaji Subhas Chandrabose Mahatma Gandhi Champaran Satyagraha Ahmadabad Mill Strike Kheda Satyagraha Communal Award Gandhi Irwin Pact Swaraj Party Gadhar Party Revol. Nationalism-Maharashtra Revolutionary Nationalism-Bengal Hindusthan Socialist Republic Ass Lahore Conspiracy Case Kakori Conspiracy Case Jallian Wallah Bagh Massacre Nehru Report 1928 Minto Morley Reforms Montague Chelmsford Reforms Govt. of Indian Act 1935 Montague Declaration Constituent Assembly Elections Atlee Declaration Cabinet Mission Crips Mission Round Table Conferences Simon Commission Wavell Plan Lord Mountbatten Boundary Commission Partition of India