Indian History

Viceroys-Lord Ripon

      Lord Ripon (1880-84)
No. Lord Ripon
1. Lord Ripon was appointed as viceroy of India in 1880.
2. He introduced a number of reforms for the welfare of people of India.
3. He enacted factories. As per this Act children having less the 12 years age were prohibited to work for more than 9 hours.
4. The vernacular press Act posted by Lord Litton in 1878 imposed several conditions on the news papers of regional languages Ripon repealed the vernacular press Act, in 1881.
5. As a result of which Indian press enjoyed freedom of expression.
6. Rippon introduced local self governments in India.
7. He was considered as father of local self Government in India.
8. A new regulation was passed in 1882.
9. As per this regulation village Panchayats were formed at village level.
10. District Boards, Taluq Boards and Municipalities also came into existence.
11. The function of local bodies were: Sanitation, roads, lights and education.
12. The Ilbert Bill introduced by the Ripon led to lot of controversy.
13. Hitherto, Indian Judges were not entitled to try the criminal cases in which Europeans were involved.
14. Ilbert, who was the law member of Ripon's viceroy council prepared a bill permitting Indian Judges to try the criminal cases in which Europeans were involved. This intended to remove racial discrimination. But it led to lot of criticism. Consequently the bill was amended.
15. As per the amended bill Indian Judge can try European criminal case only with the assistance of Jury consisting more than half of the European members.
16. Hunter commission was appointed by Ripon to introduce reforms in Education.
17. Irrigational canals and railway lines were also built during his period.
18. Age limit for Indians to enter into civil service was 19.
19. As per the aspirations of Indians Ripon recommended the government to increase the age limit to 21 years. The government accepted it and increased the age limit to 21 years.