Indian History
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Advent of Europeans-Portuguese

Portuguese:
Commercial contacts between Indian and European countries existed for a long time. In 1453 A.D Turks captured constantinople. So the land route was closed. There was a need for Europeans to search for new sea routes. The Portuguese succeeded in discovering a new sea route to India. The ruler of Portugal encouraged navigators to explore a new sea route. In this effort Barthalo Mew Diaz successfully reached the southern most tip of South Africa. It is called cape of Good Hope. Vascodagama sailing through the cape of Good Hope, reached Calicut on the west coast of India on May 17, 1498. At that time the ruler of Calicut was Zamorin. He welcomed Vascodagama. Vascodagama got permission to trade and also got trade concessions from Zamorin and returned to Portugal.Vascodagama revisited India in 1502. The officers who came after Vascodagama were called Governors. The first Governor of Portuguese in India was Francis de Almaida. He followed Blue water policy and defeated Arabs in the naval battle at Diu in 1509. Albukark was the founder of Portuguese power in India. He came to India in 1503 as a commander. He was appointed as the Governor in 1509. He captured Goa from Bijapur Sultan with the help of Vijayanagara ruler Sri Krishna Devaraya. Goa became the headquarter of Portuguese in India. He occupied Malacca in 1511. He encouraged matrimonial relationships with Indians. Portuguese also established trade centres at Diu, Daman, Salsette, Bassein, Bombay Santhom, Hugli, and Chaul. But the Portuguse lost their trade centres to Dutch and English except Goa, Diu and Daman, which were dominions of Portuguese till 1961. In 1961 they were annexed to Indian Union by a military action.
There were many causes for the downfall of Portuguese in India. Some of them are: they did not establish their settlements in the inner part of the country. They established settlements only in the coastal region. They failed in the competition among the European Powers in India. With the decline of Vijayanagara empire they lost their alley. Corrupt officials of Portuguese, converting Hindus and Muslims to Christian, disinterest of Portuguese on Indian trade etc., are some of the reasons for their downfall.

Indian History

Indus Valley Civilization Early Vedic Civilization Later Vedic Civilization Buddhism Jainism 16 Mahajanapadas Rise of Magadha Haryanka-Dynasty Sisunaga Dynasty Nandas Alexander Invasions on India Mauryan Empire Sungas Kanvas Indo-Greeks Guptas Harshavardhana Satavahanas Sangam Age Kushans-Kanishka Badami Chalukyas Kalyani Chalukyas Pallavas Cholas Rashtrakutas Muslim Invasions Rajputs Delhi Sultans Qutb-Ud-din-Aibak Iltutmish Balban Alauddin Khilji Muhammad Bin Tughluq Mughal Empire Babar Humayun Akbar Akbar Administration Jahangir Nurjahan Shah Jahan Taj Mahal Aurangzeb Sher Shah Bahmani Sultans Vijayanagara Empire Marathas Sikhs-Guru Nanak Sikhs-Ranjit Singh Hoysalas Jats Kakatiyas Kalachuris Later Pandyas Yadavas Portuguese British French Dutch Danes Anglo French Revalry First Carnatic War Second Carnatic War Third Carnatic War Battle of Plassey 1957 Battle of Buxar Expansion of British Empire First Anglo-Mysore War Second Anglo-Mysore War Third Anglo-Mysore War Fourth Anglo-Mysore War Tippu Sultan Mysore Kingdom First Anglo-Maratha War Second Anglo-Maratha War Third Anglo-Maratha War Lord Warren Hastings Lord Cornwallis Lord Wellesley Lord William Bentinck Lord Dalhousie Subsidiary Alliance-Nizam Nizam Ul Mulk Later Mughals-Bahadur Shah Oudh Kingdom Travencore Kingdom Socio-Religious Movements 1857 Revolt 1857 Revolt-Results Sambalpur Revolt Sanyasi Revolt Rippon Lord Curzon Vandemataram Movemement Reunification of Bengal Home Rule Movement Rowlatt Satyagraha Khilafat Movement Non Cooperation Movement Chauri-Chaura Incident Civil Disobedience Movement Quit India Movement Rise of Nationalism Societies-Organizations Indian National Congress Moderates Surath Congress 1907 Lucknow Pact Muslim League Pakistan Extrimists Bal Gangadhar Tilak Lala Lajapathi Roy Bipin Chandra Pal Netaji Subhas Chandrabose Mahatma Gandhi Champaran Satyagraha Ahmadabad Mill Strike Kheda Satyagraha Communal Award Gandhi Irwin Pact Swaraj Party Gadhar Party Revol. Nationalism-Maharashtra Revolutionary Nationalism-Bengal Hindusthan Socialist Republic Ass Lahore Conspiracy Case Kakori Conspiracy Case Jallian Wallah Bagh Massacre Nehru Report 1928 Minto Morley Reforms Montague Chelmsford Reforms Govt. of Indian Act 1935 Montague Declaration Constituent Assembly Elections Atlee Declaration Cabinet Mission Crips Mission Round Table Conferences Simon Commission Wavell Plan Lord Mountbatten Boundary Commission Partition of India