Indian History

Muhammad Bin Tughluq

        Muhammad Bin Tughluq succeeded his father Ghias-Ud-din Tughluq. He ascended the Delhi throne in 1325 A.D and ruled upto 1351 A.D. He was a learned man and had a number of good qualities. He was a versatile genius. He had knowledge of many languages such as persian, Turkey, Arabic and Sanskrit. He was a scholar in Mathematics, Philosophy, Medical Sciences and Physics. His character was a mixture of contradictory qualities. But he was called as mad Tughluq in the history due to the failure of his methods and innovations in administration. He was unpopular due to his administrative reforms. Some of the historians described his as a mentally imbalanced where as some praised for his efficiency. According to Lanepool Muhammad Bin Tughluq had a specific character not found in anybody in Delhi Sultanate and in the Medieval History.

       Muhammad Bin Tughluq increased land tax in the Ganges-Yamuna Doab region to improve the financial position of the state. He ordered to collect tax without fail. But most of the farmers were not able to pay the tax due to drought conditions and abandoned their lands. Farmers went away into the forests leaving the agriculture. Later Muhammad Bin Tughluq realized the mistake and tried to remedy them by digging wells and advancing loans. He made efficient the department of Agriculture.

       Muhammad Bin Tughluq thought that it would be appropriate to have the capital in the middle of kingdom. Hence he shifted the capital from Delhi to Daultabad in 1327. He renamed Devagiri as Daultabad There were two reasons for the transfer of capital by Muhammad Bin Tughluq. One was Muhammad desire to have centrally located capital and the fear of raids of Mongols. But he faced a number of problems due to shifting of capital to Daultabad. . He ordered the Delhi people to go to the new capital along with their belongings. Even the blind were forced to migrate to new capital. People faced number of problems during their long journey to Devagiri. Some of the people died in the journey. Later Sultan realized that his plan was failure and transferred back the capital to Delhi.. Hence he again ordered the people to go back to Delhi. The scheme of transfer of capital caused heavy financial loss to the treasury.

       Muhammad Bin Tughluq introduced token currency. He issued large quantities of Copper coins but he failed to prevent forgery. Hence the value of coins was felldown. Traders refused to take Copper coins and demanded Gold coins. Later sultan realized that his scheme was failure and withdrew his new coins.

       Muhammad Bin Tughluq loved Islam but he was tolerant towards other religions. He performed Hindu festivals of Holi and Diwali in his court. He employed the Hindus in posts of High category. He invited the scholars of Jaina and Hindu religion to his court and conducted religious discussions. He never distinguished the people on the basis of religion. He prohibited Sati.

       Muhammad Bin Tughluq empire streched a vast area from Himalayas to Madhurai in the south. He invaded against Khorasan and China in 1327 A.D. But he was unsuccessful. He conquered Nagarkot in Punjab. He pacify the Mongols by offering presents to them. During the period of Muhammad Bin Tughluq two independent kingdoms called Vijayanagara kingdom in 1336 and Bahmani kingdom in 1317 were established in the south. The ruler of Sind and Multan Mahram Aiba declared independence. Kapayanayaka in Andhradesa occupied Orugal and declared independence. Malabar and Bengal also became independent.

       He laid the foundation for not only downfall of Tughluq dynaty but also the Delhi Sultanate. Muhammad Bin Tughluq was died in 1351 A.D. With his death the king was freed from the people and they from the king as obsered by Badauni.

Delhi Sultans Administration Qutb-ud-din Aibak Iltutmish
Balban Alauddin Khilji Muhammad Bin Tughluq Quiz/Online Tests

Indian History

Indus Valley Civilization Early Vedic Civilization Later Vedic Civilization Buddhism Jainism 16 Mahajanapadas Rise of Magadha Haryanka-Dynasty Sisunaga Dynasty Nandas Alexander Invasions on India Mauryan Empire Sungas Kanvas Indo-Greeks Guptas Harshavardhana Satavahanas Sangam Age Kushans-Kanishka Badami Chalukyas Kalyani Chalukyas Pallavas Cholas Rashtrakutas Muslim Invasions Rajputs Delhi Sultans Qutb-Ud-din-Aibak Iltutmish Balban Alauddin Khilji Muhammad Bin Tughluq Mughal Empire Babar Humayun Akbar Akbar Administration Jahangir Nurjahan Shah Jahan Taj Mahal Aurangzeb Sher Shah Bahmani Sultans Vijayanagara Empire Marathas Sikhs-Guru Nanak Sikhs-Ranjit Singh Hoysalas Jats Kakatiyas Kalachuris Later Pandyas Yadavas Portuguese British French Dutch Danes Anglo French Revalry First Carnatic War Second Carnatic War Third Carnatic War Battle of Plassey 1957 Battle of Buxar Expansion of British Empire First Anglo-Mysore War Second Anglo-Mysore War Third Anglo-Mysore War Fourth Anglo-Mysore War Tippu Sultan Mysore Kingdom First Anglo-Maratha War Second Anglo-Maratha War Third Anglo-Maratha War Lord Warren Hastings Lord Cornwallis Lord Wellesley Lord William Bentinck Lord Dalhousie Subsidiary Alliance-Nizam Nizam Ul Mulk Later Mughals-Bahadur Shah Oudh Kingdom Travencore Kingdom Socio-Religious Movements 1857 Revolt 1857 Revolt-Results Sambalpur Revolt Sanyasi Revolt Rippon Lord Curzon Vandemataram Movemement Reunification of Bengal Home Rule Movement Rowlatt Satyagraha Khilafat Movement Non Cooperation Movement Chauri-Chaura Incident Civil Disobedience Movement Quit India Movement Rise of Nationalism Societies-Organizations Indian National Congress Moderates Surath Congress 1907 Lucknow Pact Muslim League Pakistan Extrimists Bal Gangadhar Tilak Lala Lajapathi Roy Bipin Chandra Pal Netaji Subhas Chandrabose Mahatma Gandhi Champaran Satyagraha Ahmadabad Mill Strike Kheda Satyagraha Communal Award Gandhi Irwin Pact Swaraj Party Gadhar Party Revol. Nationalism-Maharashtra Revolutionary Nationalism-Bengal Hindusthan Socialist Republic Ass Lahore Conspiracy Case Kakori Conspiracy Case Jallian Wallah Bagh Massacre Nehru Report 1928 Minto Morley Reforms Montague Chelmsford Reforms Govt. of Indian Act 1935 Montague Declaration Constituent Assembly Elections Atlee Declaration Cabinet Mission Crips Mission Round Table Conferences Simon Commission Wavell Plan Lord Mountbatten Boundary Commission Partition of India