Indian History


  • The period from 1885-1905 is called Age of Moderates in the Indian Freedom Movement.
  • Surendranath Benerjee, Firoj Shah Mehta, Womesh Chandra Benerjee, Gopala Krishna Gokhale, M.G.Ranade, Rass Bihari Ghosh are the prominent moderate leaders.
  • The main activity of the Congress during this period was "prayer, Petition and Protest".
  • During this period Congress leaders demanded to increase the Indian representation in Central and Provincial Legislatures, to reduce the expenditure on defence, to separate the Judiciary from the executive, to reduce land revenue, to reduce the age limit for civil services and conduct simultaneous examinations in England and India.
  • To some extent moderates succeeded in achieving goals.
  • They created the spirit of nationalism through their writings and lectures.
  • They initiated the concept of Swadeshi.
  • They opposed the foreign goods and urged the people to use Indian products.
  • The Indian Councils Act 1892 was passed by the British as a result of agitations of Moderates.
  • As per this Act the number of Indian members in imperial and provincial legislatures was increased.
  • Some members could be elected by Indians indirectly.
  • The Act gave the right to discuss on the Budget and put questions on certain issues.
  • But the Act did not satisfy the Moderates.