Indian History

Indus Valley Civilization

   Indus Valley Civilization
No. Indus Valley Civilization
1. Indus Valley Civilization is also known as Harappan Civilization.
2. Indus valley Civilization was discovered in 1921-1922.
3. This Civilization belongs to Metal Age
4. Metal age began in 5000 B.C. during this age man used copper and bronze to make implements
5. Dravidians were the founders of this civilization.
6. Indus Valley Civilization is earlier to Vedic Civilization (Early Vedic Civilization and Later Vedic Civilizatin).
7. This civilization belongs to proto-historic period.
8. The towns of Harappa Civilization reflects the first urbanization in the history of India.
9. The ancient name of the Indus region was Meluha.
10. Sir John Marshal carried out extensive excavations in the Indus region.
11. The first discovered Indus site was Harappa.
12. Harappa and Mohenjodaro were the largest sites of Indus Valley Civilization.
13. Many historians proposed different dates about the period of Indus Valley Civilization but the generally accepted period was 2300-1750 B.C.
14. The main feature of Indus Valley civilization was Town Planning.
15. The Houses and drainage canals were mainly built with Burnt-Brick. Underground drainage system depicts the skill of the Indus people in Town Planning
Indus Site-Harappa
16. Harappa is located in the Montegomari district of Punjab in Pakistan on the banks of river Ravi.
17. It was the first excavated Harappan site. Extensive excavations of Harappa were carried out by Mortimer Wheeler.
18. It was surveyed by Dayanand Sahni in 1921.
19. 6 granaries were found at Harappa.
20. A stone symbol of female sex organs was discovered.
21. A stone male dancing figure Nataraja was found.
22. Harappa was an important centre of boat making.
Indus Site-Mohenjodaro
23. Mohenjodaro means Mound of the Dead.
24. It is located in Larkana district of Sindh in Pakistan on the banks of river Indus.
25. Mohenjodaro was discovered by R.D.Benerjee in 1972.
26. A swimming pool called 'Great Bath' was found here.
27. It had 9 vertical layers.
28. Mohanjodaro is largest of all Indus sites.
29. The Bronze figure of dancing girl was found here.
30. The evidence of ship was found in Mohanjodaro.
31. Granaries and Fire alters were found in Mohenjodaro.
32. Pasupati seal has been discovered.
Other Indus Sites
33. Lothal was located in Gujarat. It was discovered by S.R.Rao in 1957.
34. Lothal was the port town. A dockyard structure was found here.
35. Lothal had houses with doors on the main streets
36. Fire Altars and Rice husk has been discovered in Lothal.
37. A dockyard on the Bhoga river have been found.
38. The Indus Site Kalibhangan was discovered by A.Ghosh in 1951. It was located in Rajasthan.
39. The evidence of ploughing the land was found in Kalibhangan.
40. Bones of Camel and Fire alters were discovered in Kalibhangan.
42. The evidence of land ploughing was also found in Kalibhangan.
43. The Indus Site Banwali was discovered by R.S.Bisht in 1973.
44. Banwali was located in Haryana.
45. A clay model plough, Citadel, barley and 12 horned tiger seal have been found in Banwali.
46. No drinage system has been found in Banwali.
47. The Indus Site Chanhudaro was discovered by N.G.Majumdar in 1931.
48. Chanhudaro was located in Sindh. Ink Pot was discovered here.
49. The Indus Site Alamgirpur was discovered by Punjab University in 1958.
50. Alamgirpur was located in Meerut district of Uttar Pradesh on the banks of Hindan river.
51. The Indus Site Surkotada was discovered by Jagpati Joshi in 1972.
52. Surkotada was located in Gujarat.
53. Burial room, human bones in pottery and the remains of horse have been found in Surkotada.
54. The Indus Site Kotdiji was discovered by Ghurye in 1935.
55. Kotdiji was located in Sindh.
56. Steatite Seals, Stone arrow head and figure of Ox have been found in Kotdiji.
57. Kotdiji was destroyed by fire.
58. The Indus Site Dholavira was discovered by J.P.Joshi in 1967 and excavated in 1991.
59. Dholavira is the largest Indus site in India.
60. Dholavira was located in Gujarat.
61. Dholavira was divided into three parts i.e. Citadel, Middle Town and Lower Town.
62. The Indus Site Rangapur was discovered by M.S.Vats in 1931.
63. Rangapur was located in Gujarat.
64. Rice husk has been found in Rangapur.
65. Six types of pottery have been found in Rangapur.
66. Rupar was discovered by Y.D.Sharma in 1953.
67. Rupar was located on the banks of Sutlej River in Punjab.
68. A Copper Axe and the Evedence of burying the dog below the human burial has been found in Rupar.
Indus Valley Civilization-Society
69. The main occupation of Indus people was agriculture. The main crops they produced were: Wheat and Barly.Indus people produced Cotton for the first time in the world.
79. Indus People had trade relations with Babylonia, Egypt and Mesopotomia. They exported Cotton goods, Pottery and Terracottas.
71. The main male diety was Pasupati(Siva). The main female Goddess was Mother Goddess. They worshipped the bird Pigeon. They also worshipped Water, Trees and Snakes. Many of the religious practices of the Indus people are still followed in India.
72. Indus People made their tools implements and utensils mostly with Copper, Bronze and Stome. They obtained copper from Beluchistan and Rajasthan and Gold from Kolar and Anantapur.
73. The metal Iron was not known to Indus people.
74. The ornaments of Indus people were made up of Copper, Bronze, Gold, Silver and Precious Stones. They made household articles with Stome, Mud and Copper. They made cloths with wool and Cotton. They made pottery with mud with beautiful designs and exported then to foreign countries.
75. The animal Horse doesn`t know the Indus people. Animals domesticated by Indus people were Bull, buffaloes, Goat, Sheep, Asses, Pigs and domenstic fowls. The animals depicted on the Indus seals were Bull, Unicorn, Tiger. The animals Buffaloe, Rhinoceros, Elephant and Deer are present around the Pasupati on a seal. Indus people made seals with Steatite, Ivory and Clay.
76. Music, Dance and Chess were the main pastimes of Indus people.
77. Indus People used Pictographic script. The script was written from left to right and from right to left. It is called Boustrophedon.
78. Carts with wheels were in use in Harappa. Burnt bricks were used for public buildings.
79. There were three funeral practices of Indus people. They are cremation, Complete burial and exposing the dead body to wild animals and burying the remains.
80. The reasons for the decline of Indus Valley Civilization were Aryans invasions, Floods and Earthquakes.

Indian History

Indus Valley Civilization Early Vedic Civilization Later Vedic Civilization Buddhism Jainism 16 Mahajanapadas Rise of Magadha Haryanka-Dynasty Sisunaga Dynasty Nandas Alexander Invasions on India Mauryan Empire Sungas Kanvas Indo-Greeks Guptas Harshavardhana Satavahanas Sangam Age Kushans-Kanishka Badami Chalukyas Kalyani Chalukyas Pallavas Cholas Rashtrakutas Muslim Invasions Rajputs Delhi Sultans Qutb-Ud-din-Aibak Iltutmish Balban Alauddin Khilji Muhammad Bin Tughluq Mughal Empire Babar Humayun Akbar Akbar Administration Jahangir Nurjahan Shah Jahan Taj Mahal Aurangzeb Sher Shah Bahmani Sultans Vijayanagara Empire Marathas Sikhs-Guru Nanak Sikhs-Ranjit Singh Hoysalas Jats Kakatiyas Kalachuris Later Pandyas Yadavas Portuguese British French Dutch Danes Anglo French Revalry First Carnatic War Second Carnatic War Third Carnatic War Battle of Plassey 1957 Battle of Buxar Expansion of British Empire First Anglo-Mysore War Second Anglo-Mysore War Third Anglo-Mysore War Fourth Anglo-Mysore War Tippu Sultan Mysore Kingdom First Anglo-Maratha War Second Anglo-Maratha War Third Anglo-Maratha War Lord Warren Hastings Lord Cornwallis Lord Wellesley Lord William Bentinck Lord Dalhousie Subsidiary Alliance-Nizam Nizam Ul Mulk Later Mughals-Bahadur Shah Oudh Kingdom Travencore Kingdom Socio-Religious Movements 1857 Revolt 1857 Revolt-Results Sambalpur Revolt Sanyasi Revolt Rippon Lord Curzon Vandemataram Movemement Reunification of Bengal Home Rule Movement Rowlatt Satyagraha Khilafat Movement Non Cooperation Movement Chauri-Chaura Incident Civil Disobedience Movement Quit India Movement Rise of Nationalism Societies-Organizations Indian National Congress Moderates Surath Congress 1907 Lucknow Pact Muslim League Pakistan Extrimists Bal Gangadhar Tilak Lala Lajapathi Roy Bipin Chandra Pal Netaji Subhas Chandrabose Mahatma Gandhi Champaran Satyagraha Ahmadabad Mill Strike Kheda Satyagraha Communal Award Gandhi Irwin Pact Swaraj Party Gadhar Party Revol. Nationalism-Maharashtra Revolutionary Nationalism-Bengal Hindusthan Socialist Republic Ass Lahore Conspiracy Case Kakori Conspiracy Case Jallian Wallah Bagh Massacre Nehru Report 1928 Minto Morley Reforms Montague Chelmsford Reforms Govt. of Indian Act 1935 Montague Declaration Constituent Assembly Elections Atlee Declaration Cabinet Mission Crips Mission Round Table Conferences Simon Commission Wavell Plan Lord Mountbatten Boundary Commission Partition of India