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Establishment of British Rule in India

      Alivardi Khan, Nawab of Bengal kept Europeans Under his control. Though he maintained friendly relations with English. Alivardikhan was died in 1756. Siraj-ud-daula became the Nawab of Bengal. The seven years war started in Europe in 1756. The British and the French Started the extension of their fortification Bengal Nawab Siraj-ud-dah ordered to stop the extension works. But British disobeyed the Nawab orders and continued their works at calcutta. Siraj-ud-daula was angrey with British attitude and attacked calcutta with his troops and captured 143 English men and imprisoned them in a small room in fort william. Most of them were died due to suffocation. This incident wsas known as 'the Black Hole Tragedy of calcutta'. This news reached Madras. British sent Robert Clive and Adminal Watson to Calcutta. They recaptured Calcutta. Rober Clive also occupied the French settlements in Chandranagore. As a result French influence in Bengal came to end. Robert Clive conspired with Mir Jafar, the chief of the siraj's armies to replace Siraj-ud-daula. Some other prominant persons also joined hands with Robert Clive. Robert Clive proposed certain demands which would not have been accepted by the Siraj. Then war became inevitable. In the battle that took place at plassey on 23 June 1757 Siraj-ud-daula was defeated and killed. After the war Mir Jafar was made the Nawab of Bengal.

       The battle of plassey laid foundations for British rule in India. This battle revealed the weakness of native rulers. The Nawab of Bengal became puppet in the hands of English. Robert Clive was appointed as the governor of Bengal in 1758. East India company squeezed the Nawab for bribes and presents which led to bankruptcy. Mir Jafar was unable to satisfy the demands of the company. Then British replaced Mirjafar with Mir Qusim. Mir Jafar strengthened his army. He did not allow company officials to intervene in the administration. As a result of measures taken by the Mir Quasim, he was dethroned by the company and Mir Jafar again was made Nawab of Bengal. Mir Qasim the Mughal Emperor,Shah Alam and Shuja-ud-daula Nawab of oudh formed as tripple allience. The combined armies fought against English at Buxar. But the combined armies were defeated by English under Hector Munroe on oct. 17,1764.

      The battle of Buxar war very important in Indian History as the emperor of India was defeated in this battle. After the battle a treaty was concluded called Allahabad Treaty. Robert Clive was appointed as Governor of Bengal for the second time in 1765. He concluded Allahabad treaty with Mughal Emperor and Nawab of Oudha. As per the treaty of Allahabad the administration of Bengal was divided in to Diwani and Nizamath. Diwani was the right of collecting land revenue in Bengal. It was taken over by the British. Nizamath was the responsibility of administration. It was entrusted to the Nawab of Bengal. East India company agreed to pay 26 lakhs rupees p.a. to the Mughal Emperor. English got Northern circars in the third Carnatic War. Mughal emperor agreed to recognize the authority of English on them. The districts of Allahabad and Kara were separated from Oudha and were given to Mughal emperor. The Nawab of Caenatic War recognized as an Independent ruler. The Deccan Subedar at Hyderabad should not have any control over Carnatic Nawab. Thus, English became the real rulers of Bengal, Bihar, and orissa by the year 1765.

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