Indian History

Dual Government

  • Dual Government means double system of administration.
  • The system of Dual Government was introduced in Bengal by Robert Clive of British East India Company.
  • This system remained in practice during the period from 1765 to 1772.
  • The system was very advantageous for the company as it had power without responsibility.
  • Under this system, the administration of Bengal was divided into Nizamat and Diwani.
  • Diwani being the right to collect revenue was given to East India Company and Nizamat(administrative responsibility) was entrusted to Bengal Nawab.
  • Under this system, though the administration theoretically divided between the Company and the Nawab, the whole power was actually in the hands of the Company.
  • The Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II granted the Diwani of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa to the East India Company in 1765.
  • In 1769 English supervisors(collectors) were appointed to control the native revenue officers.
  • Clive appointed deputy diwans i.e Mohammad Raza Khan for Bengal and Raja Shitab Roy for Bihar, who were responsible to collect Diwani.
  • The Nawabs, who were deprived of any real power in 1765, were merely puppets in the hands of the British.
  • The Dual system of Government was abolished by Warren Hastings in 1772 and Bengal was brought under direct control of the British.
  • The Nawabs remained as the mere pensioners of the East India Company.