Indian History
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             Of All the rebellions against the rule of East India company in India 1857 Revolt was important one. The aggressive expansionist policies of Dalhousie was responsible for the out break of the 1857 Revolt. The immediate cause for the out break of Revolt was the introduction of Enfield rifles in 1856. The greased catridges were to be bitten before loaded into the rifle. The grease was made up of cow and pig fat. The sepoys thought that the British intentionally hurting their religious beliefs and refused to use them. The revolt was started when Mangal Pandey refused to use the catridge and killed a british officer at Barakpur on March 29, 1857.

             The sepoys at Meerut revolted on May 10, 1857. The sepoys declared Bahadur Shah II the Mughal emperor as the Emperor of India. Nana Saheb, the adopted son of Baji Rao II led the revolt in Kanpur. He got the help of Russia and succeeded in driving out the British from Kanpur. But captain campbell reoccupied Kanpur. Nana Saheb fled to Nepal. In Oudh Begum Hazarath Mahal. Who was the queen of the last Nawab of Oudh Wazid Ali, led the revolt. She got the help of Nana Saheb and Moulvi Ahmadullah. Tantia Tope, who was the follower of Nana Saheb was the bravest of all mutineers. He fought with British in Gwalior. Oudh and Kanpur. He was treacherously caught by Raja Mansingh and handed over to British. He was hanged by the British in 1859. Laxmibai of Jhansi led the revolt in Jhansi. He orginal name was Manikarnika. She was died fighting on 17th June 1857. Sir Hugh Rose suppressed the revolt. Khan Bahadur Khan, who was the legal heir to the Rohilkhand throne, rebelled in Bareilly. The British General Nicholson was died which he attempting to recapture Delhi. Bahadur Shah II was caught and sent to Rangoon. He was died in 1862 in Rangoon. Hudson killed all the sons of Bahadushah.

             There are many causes for the failure of 1857 Revolt. The revolt did not spread to all the parts of India. It only confined to Northern and central India. The rulers of Gwalior, Hyderabad, Kashmir helped the British against the revolt. There was a lack of plan and leadership in the revolt. The result of 1857 Revolt was that the East India company rule was ended in India. The British Government enacted Parliament Act of 1858. As per this Act Indian administration shifted into the hands of the British crown. The Governor General of India was redigignated as viceroy. Viceroy was the representative of British emperor. The Act also created office of secretary of state for administrative control of India. As per the Act a British cabinet Minister shall be designated as secretary of state for India. Lord Canning was the first viceroy of India. Charles wood was the first secretary of state for India. The queen victoria promissed in her proclamation in 1858 that she would give good administration to the people of India and protect the rights of native rulers. Accordingly the doctrine of lapse was abolished and the native rulers were permitted to adoption.

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