Indian History


             Of All the rebellions against the rule of East India company in India 1857 Revolt was important one. The aggressive expansionist policies of Dalhousie was responsible for the out break of the 1857 Revolt. The immediate cause for the out break of Revolt was the introduction of Enfield rifles in 1856. The greased catridges were to be bitten before loaded into the rifle. The grease was made up of cow and pig fat. The sepoys thought that the British intentionally hurting their religious beliefs and refused to use them. The revolt was started when Mangal Pandey refused to use the catridge and killed a british officer at Barakpur on March 29, 1857.

             The sepoys at Meerut revolted on May 10, 1857. The sepoys declared Bahadur Shah II the Mughal emperor as the Emperor of India. Nana Saheb, the adopted son of Baji Rao II led the revolt in Kanpur. He got the help of Russia and succeeded in driving out the British from Kanpur. But captain campbell reoccupied Kanpur. Nana Saheb fled to Nepal. In Oudh Begum Hazarath Mahal. Who was the queen of the last Nawab of Oudh Wazid Ali, led the revolt. She got the help of Nana Saheb and Moulvi Ahmadullah. Tantia Tope, who was the follower of Nana Saheb was the bravest of all mutineers. He fought with British in Gwalior. Oudh and Kanpur. He was treacherously caught by Raja Mansingh and handed over to British. He was hanged by the British in 1859. Laxmibai of Jhansi led the revolt in Jhansi. He orginal name was Manikarnika. She was died fighting on 17th June 1857. Sir Hugh Rose suppressed the revolt. Khan Bahadur Khan, who was the legal heir to the Rohilkhand throne, rebelled in Bareilly. The British General Nicholson was died which he attempting to recapture Delhi. Bahadur Shah II was caught and sent to Rangoon. He was died in 1862 in Rangoon. Hudson killed all the sons of Bahadushah.

             There are many causes for the failure of 1857 Revolt. The revolt did not spread to all the parts of India. It only confined to Northern and central India. The rulers of Gwalior, Hyderabad, Kashmir helped the British against the revolt. There was a lack of plan and leadership in the revolt. The result of 1857 Revolt was that the East India company rule was ended in India. The British Government enacted Parliament Act of 1858. As per this Act Indian administration shifted into the hands of the British crown. The Governor General of India was redigignated as viceroy. Viceroy was the representative of British emperor. The Act also created office of secretary of state for administrative control of India. As per the Act a British cabinet Minister shall be designated as secretary of state for India. Lord Canning was the first viceroy of India. Charles wood was the first secretary of state for India. The queen victoria promissed in her proclamation in 1858 that she would give good administration to the people of India and protect the rights of native rulers. Accordingly the doctrine of lapse was abolished and the native rulers were permitted to adoption.

Indian History

Indus Valley Civilization Early Vedic Civilization Later Vedic Civilization Buddhism Jainism 16 Mahajanapadas Rise of Magadha Haryanka-Dynasty Sisunaga Dynasty Nandas Alexander Invasions on India Mauryan Empire Sungas Kanvas Indo-Greeks Guptas Harshavardhana Satavahanas Sangam Age Kushans-Kanishka Badami Chalukyas Kalyani Chalukyas Pallavas Cholas Rashtrakutas Muslim Invasions Rajputs Delhi Sultans Qutb-Ud-din-Aibak Iltutmish Balban Alauddin Khilji Muhammad Bin Tughluq Mughal Empire Babar Humayun Akbar Akbar Administration Jahangir Nurjahan Shah Jahan Taj Mahal Aurangzeb Sher Shah Bahmani Sultans Vijayanagara Empire Marathas Sikhs-Guru Nanak Sikhs-Ranjit Singh Hoysalas Jats Kakatiyas Kalachuris Later Pandyas Yadavas Portuguese British French Dutch Danes Anglo French Revalry First Carnatic War Second Carnatic War Third Carnatic War Battle of Plassey 1957 Battle of Buxar Expansion of British Empire First Anglo-Mysore War Second Anglo-Mysore War Third Anglo-Mysore War Fourth Anglo-Mysore War Tippu Sultan Mysore Kingdom First Anglo-Maratha War Second Anglo-Maratha War Third Anglo-Maratha War Lord Warren Hastings Lord Cornwallis Lord Wellesley Lord William Bentinck Lord Dalhousie Subsidiary Alliance-Nizam Nizam Ul Mulk Later Mughals-Bahadur Shah Oudh Kingdom Travencore Kingdom Socio-Religious Movements 1857 Revolt 1857 Revolt-Results Sambalpur Revolt Sanyasi Revolt Rippon Lord Curzon Vandemataram Movemement Reunification of Bengal Home Rule Movement Rowlatt Satyagraha Khilafat Movement Non Cooperation Movement Chauri-Chaura Incident Civil Disobedience Movement Quit India Movement Rise of Nationalism Societies-Organizations Indian National Congress Moderates Surath Congress 1907 Lucknow Pact Muslim League Pakistan Extrimists Bal Gangadhar Tilak Lala Lajapathi Roy Bipin Chandra Pal Netaji Subhas Chandrabose Mahatma Gandhi Champaran Satyagraha Ahmadabad Mill Strike Kheda Satyagraha Communal Award Gandhi Irwin Pact Swaraj Party Gadhar Party Revol. Nationalism-Maharashtra Revolutionary Nationalism-Bengal Hindusthan Socialist Republic Ass Lahore Conspiracy Case Kakori Conspiracy Case Jallian Wallah Bagh Massacre Nehru Report 1928 Minto Morley Reforms Montague Chelmsford Reforms Govt. of Indian Act 1935 Montague Declaration Constituent Assembly Elections Atlee Declaration Cabinet Mission Crips Mission Round Table Conferences Simon Commission Wavell Plan Lord Mountbatten Boundary Commission Partition of India