Indian History

Sangam Age

  • The land between the river Tungabhadra and Kanyakumari is called Tamiladesa or Dravidadesa or Dakshinadesa.
  • The ancient Tamil Kingdoms of Cholas, Pandyas and Cheras were referred in Ashokan inscriptions and Hathigumpha inscription of Kalinga king Kharavela.
  • The writings of Megastanese also referred these kingdoms.
  • The first, second and the third centuries A.D were referred as Sangam Age in the Tamil History.
  • Sangam(Kudal) means assembly of scholars and poets at Madurai.
  • The literature produced by the members of the assembly is called Sangam Literature.
  • The history of ancient Tamil kingdoms i.e. Cholas, Cheras and Pandyas came to know from Sangam Literature.
  • The land of three kingdoms (Chola, Chera and Pandya) is called as Tamilakkam in Tamil Literature.
  • Tamil Literature was patronized by all the kings of Sangam Age.
  • Silappadikaram and Manimekalai are the two great works of Sangam Literature.
  • Silappadikaram was written by Ilango Adigal.
  • The life of Kannagi(a great woman known for her chastity) is known from Silappadikaram.
  • Sattanar, a buddhist, was the author of Manimekalai.
  • As per traditional accounts three Sangams were held.
  • The first Sangam was held to the south of Madurai under the patronage of Makeerthy, the Pandyan king. Agastya was the president of first sangam.
  • The second Sangam was held in Kapadapuram, second capital of the Pandyas.
  • The third Sangam was held in Madurai. Nakkirar was the president of third Sangam.
  • For supremacy over Tamilakkam frequent wars took place between the three(chola, chera and pandya) kingdoms.
  • Talkoppiam, a work on grammar, was composed by Tolkappiar in the second sangam.
  • Tiruttakkadevara, a Jain, was the author of Sivaka Chintamani.
  • Nakkirar was the author of Tirumurukatuppadai.
  • Aryan religious customs, caste system and Sanskrit words entered into Tamil as a result of contacts with them.
  • Trade relations exists between Tamilakkam and Roman empire during the Sangam Age.