Indian History

Chola Empire

  • Chola dynasty is one of the most prominent dynasty in South India during the ancient period.
  • Almost the entire Tamil region was under the control of Cholas.
  • Their kingdom Cholamandalam lay to the North-East of the Pandyas between the Pennar and the Vettar rivers.
  • Sangam Literature was the important source to know about the Cholas.
  • The references about Chodas or Cholas are mentioned in II and XIII Rock edicts of Mauryan king Ashoka.
  • The history of Cholas can be divided into four divisions. They are:
  • 1. Cholas of Sangam age/ Cholas of Cholamandalam (Coromandal coast).
  • 2. The interval between the close of Sangam Age and rise of Vijayalaya line.
  • 3. Cholas from 850 AD to ad 1267 AD. They are called Imperial Cholas of Tanjore(Vijayalaya Line).
  • 4. Chalukya-Chola line of Kulottunga I.
  • The greatest among the Cholas of the Sangam Age was Karikala Chola. He extended the Chola territory. He built a new capital city called Kaveripattanam. or Puhar. But his successors were inefficient. Hence Cholas were reduced to an insignificant position due to the expansion of the Cheras and the Pandyas.
  • Cholas power was revived by Vijayalaya after the decline of Pallavas. They are called imperial Cholas. Adhirajendra was the last ruler of vijayalaya line of Cholas. After his death Vijayalaya line of Cholas had ended. The capital of Imperial Cholas was Tanjore.
  • Kulottunaga I was the first ruler of Chalukya-Chola line. He ruled from 1070-1120 AD. Kulottunga III who ruled between 1178-1216 AD was the last ruler.