Indian History

Work Force-NSSO Survey

The worker population ratio (WPR) in usual status (ps+ss) was about 39 per cent at the all-India level. It was about 40 per cent in rural areas and 36 per cent in urban areas. The WPR in usual status (ps+ss) was 54 per cent for rural males, 25 per cent for rural females, 55 per cent for urban males and 15 per cent for urban females.
About 3 per cent of the Indian population was employed only in the subsidiary status. The proportion of females employed in the subsidiary capacity only, was higher than that of males. About 7 per cent of rural females and about 2 per cent of urban females were employed only in the subsidiary status.
The WPR in current weekly status (CWS) was about 36 per cent at the all-India level - 37 per cent in rural areas and 35 per cent in urban areas. The WPR in CWS was 53 per cent for rural males, 21 per cent for rural females, 54 per cent for urban males and 14 per cent for urban females.
The WPR in current daily status (CDS) was about 34 per cent at the all-India level. The WPR in CDS was about 50 per cent for rural males, 17 per cent for rural females, 53 per cent for urban males and 13 per cent for urban females.
Between 2009-10 and 2011-12, WPR in usual status (ps+ss) decreased by about 1 percentage point for rural females, increased by about 1 percentage point for urban females and remained almost at the same level for males of both rural and urban areas.
Between NSS 27th round (1972-73) and 68th round (2011-12), WPR in usual status (ps+ss) remained at the same level for rural males, decreased by about 7 percentage points for rural females, increased by 5 percentage points for urban males and 1 percentage point for urban females.
Among workers in usual status (ps+ss), about 55 per cent of the rural males, 59 per cent of rural females, 42 per cent for urban males and 43 per cent for urban females were self-employed. Among workers, about 10 per cent of rural males, 6 per cent of rural females and 43 per cent in each of urban males and urban females were regular wage/ salaried employees. The proportion of casual labour among workers in usual status (ps+ss) was about 36 per cent for rural males, 35 per cent for rural females, 15 per cent for urban males and 14 per cent for urban females.
Among workers in usual status (ps+ss) of age 15 years and above, about 28 percent of rural males, 56 per cent of rural females, 11 per cent of urban males and 28 per cent of urban females were not literate.
Among workers in usual status (ps+ss) of age 15 years and above, about 26 percent of male workers and 11 per cent of female workers in the rural areas and about 53 per cent for male workers and 40 per cent for female workers in the urban areas were educated (i.e. with educational level secondary and above including diploma/ certificate).
Among workers in the usual status (ps+ss) in rural India, about 59 per cent of the males and 75 per cent of the females were engaged in the agriculture sector. The proportion of workers engaged in the agricultural activities gradually fell from 81 per cent in 1977-78 to 59 per cent in 2011-12 for rural males and from 88 per cent in 1977-78 to 75 per cent in 2011-12 for rural females.
In urban India, among male workers in usual status (ps+ss), the ‘trade, hotel and restaurant' sector registered the highest proportion of workers (about 26 per cent) while ‘manufacturing’ and ‘other services’ sectors accounted for about 22 percent and 21 per cent, respectively. Among female workers in the urban areas, ‘other services’ sector registered the highest proportion of workers (40 per cent), followed by ‘manufacturing’ (29 per cent), ‘trade, hotel and restaurant' (13 percent) and ‘agriculture’ (11 per cent).
Over the years, there has been considerable increase in the proportion of workers engaged in ‘construction’. Between 1977-78 and 2011-12, the increase in the proportion of workers in ‘construction’ was about 11 percentage points for rural males, 6 percentage points for rural females, 7 percentage points for urban males and 2 percentage points for urban females. During this period, in the urban areas, proportion of male workers engaged in ‘trade, hotel and restaurant' increased by about 4 percentage points and proportion of female workers engaged in ‘other services’ sector increased by 14 percentage points.
Among the workers in the rural areas, the occupation ‘skilled agricultural and fishery workers’ registered the highest proportion of workers for both males (39 per cent) and females (48 per cent). In the urban areas, the occupation ‘craft and related trades workers’ registered the highest proportion of workers for males (19 per cent) and the occupation ‘elementary occupations’ for females (about 23 percent).
The daily wage/salary earnings of a regular wage/salaried employee of age 15-59 years was Rs. 298.96 in the rural areas and Rs. 449.65 in the urban areas. This was Rs. 322.28 for rural males, Rs. 201.56 for rural females, Rs. 469.87 for urban males and Rs. 366.15 for urban females.
The daily wage rate of casual labour of age 15-59 years, engaged in public works other than MGNREG public works was Rs. 127.39 for rural males and Rs. 110.62 for rural females. Among the casual labourers of age 15-59 years engaged in MGNREG public works, the daily wage rate was Rs. 112.46 for rural males and Rs. 101.97 for rural females. The daily wage rate of casual labour of age 15-59 years engaged in works other than public works was Rs. 149.32 for rural males, Rs. 103.28 for rural females, Rs. 182.04 for urban males and Rs. 110.62 for urbanfemales.
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