Indian History

Underemployment-NSSO Survey

The underemployment rate defined as the proportion of workers in usual status (ps+ss) who were found to be not employed (i.e. reporting either unemployed or not in labour force) during the week preceding the date of survey, was about 3 per cent for rural males, 17 per cent for rural females, 1 per cent for urban males and 6 per cent for urban females.
The underemployment rate defined in terms of the proportion of person-days of the workers in usual status (ps+ss) which were not utilised for work was quite high for females as compared to males. This was about 7 per cent for rural males, 32 per cent for rural females, 3 per cent for urban males and 15 per cent for urban females.
The underemployment rate defined in terms of the proportion of person-days of the workers in current weekly status which were not utilised for work, was about 4 per cent for rural males, 18 per cent for rural females, 2 per cent for urban males and 9 per cent for urban females.
Among the usually employed persons in the principal status, a higher proportion of females than males, in both rural and urban areas, did not work more or less regularly during last 365 days – 13 per cent for rural females as against 10 per cent for rural males and 7 per cent for urban females as against 5 per cent for urban males.
The proportion of usual principal status workers of age 15 years and above who sought or were available for additional work was about 8 per cent for rural males, 5 per cent for rural females, 4 per cent for urban males and 3 per cent for urban females.
The proportion of usual principal status workers of age 15 years and above who sought or were available for alternative work was higher in rural areas than in urban areas - about 6 per cent in rural areas and 4 per cent in urban areas. The corresponding proportions were about 7 per cent for rural males, 4 per cent each for rural females, urban males and urban females.
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