Coal: In India, the most important power resource is coal. Based on the carbon content and calorific value, coal is divided into four types:
All India Coal Production(2014-15): 612.44 Million Tonnes. Coal India limited and its subsidiaries accounted for 494.23 million tonnes during 2014-15 as against a production of 462.41 million tonnes in 2013-14 showing a growth of 6.9%.
In India, coal deposits are widely distributed in Damodar river valley. Jharkhand and Chattisgarh are the major producers of coal. Jharia, Giridhi, Bokaro and Karanpur are the main fields. besides, Godavari, Mahanadi and Vardha river valleys. Total Coal Reserves as on 1.4.2014: 301.56 Billion tonnes.
State-wise geological resources of Coal
Jharkhand: 80716 MT
Odisha: 75073 MT
Chhattisgarh: 52533 MT
West Bengal: 31318 MT
Madhya Pradesh: 25673 MT
Andhra Pradesh: 22468 MT
Maharashtra: 10964 MT
India ranks third in the world in the production of coal. It is said that millions of years ago, the earth was covered with thick dense forests, and these forests gradually burried in the layers of the earth and converted into coal due to heat and pressure.
Coal is not only an energy source, but also a raw material used in the manufacture of insect repellants, explosives, artificial fibre, artificial rubber, plastic, chemical fertilizers etc. Coal is an important mineral product with multiple uses. It is called “Black Diamond”.