Shifting of residential place from one place to another is called Migration. A migrant means one who has shifted from his birthplace and settled in another place. There are many reasons for migration. There are mainly two types of migration: International and Internal (Domestic). Shifting from one nation to another is called International Migration. Shifting from one region to another within the country is called Internal Migration. This is divided into four types:
1. Rural to Rural migration
2. Rural to Urban migration
3. Urban to rural migration
4. Urban to Urban migration.
Of the people who have migrated from one place to another, approximately 50% do it for the purpose of marriage. Other reasons for migration are: better employment opportunities, trade, good life style, social security, health etc. These are classified into social political and economic causes.
There are many problems due to migration. When the rural population migrates to cities in search of jobs, due to lack of housing they are forced to live in slums. Migration leads to immoral and other activities. Pressure of population leads to the basic amenities like water, electricity, roads, education etc. The density of population increases in the places of migrated regions. It affects the employment opportunity and leads to dacoity, murders and other criminal activities.
To prevent problems arise due to migration of rural population to many steps have been taken.Establishing industrial areas outside the city limits, thereby encouraging the workers to stay in satellite towns. Expanding and providing facilities available in cities like good roads, drinking water, sanitary facility, library, educational institutions for villages and small towns. This is called ‘PURA’ project. By these methods, migration of rural population can be checked. Improving transportation facilities between cities and surrounding rural areas. Establishing satellite towns just outside city limits.