After China, India is the most populous country in the world. In addition to the population being more in size, the growth of population is also very high. Hence, besides being a resource, population has become a big problem.
When we consider the facts and figures related to population, the main feature is over growth of population. Today the population as per 2011 is 121 crores. But during the 1981-2011 there was a slight decreases in the growth rate.
During the period from 1901 to 1911, the population growth rate was very less and during the period 1911-1921 it was negative, i.e., 0.31%. During this period, a lot of people died due to epidemics like plague and cholera. Hence there was a decrease in population. After 1971 population increases to 24.80%. It was the period of maximum growth of population. In 2001 it was 21.54% and further decreased during in 2011 to 17.64% . That means in the last decade, it came down by 3.90%.