Indian History

Types of Farming

There are different types of farming exist in India. They are:

1. Intensive farming: Growing 2-3 crops on the same plot in a year is called Intensive Farming. India's population being huge, there is large demand for agricultural products. Hence this kind of farming is in practice in areas which are fertile and have huge population.

2. Subsistence farming: In subsistence farming farmers settle down at a particular place and grow crops for their own use. Subsistence farming is divided into two types

a. Sedentary Farming: Agriculture as practiced in one place by a settled farmer in which fields are not rotated is called sedentary agriculture.

b. Shifting cultivation : In shifting cultivation farmers cut down forests and cultivates the land. After one or two years when the fertility of the soil reduces they move to other areas and start cultivation there. This is called shifting cultivation. The forest area in India in 2008-09 is 69.63 Million Hectares. The percentage of forest area in India in 2008-09 is 22.78

3. Commercial Farming: Agriculture practised for commercial purpose is called Commercial Farming. Tobacco, sugarcane, cotton, tea, coffee, rubber etc. are commercial crops. The main characteristic of this type of farming is the use of higher doses of modern inputs, for example High Yielding Variety (HYV) seeds, chemical fertilisers, insecticides and pesticides in order to obtain higher productivity. The degree of commercialisation of agriculture varies from one region to another. For example, rice is a commercial crop in Haryana and Punjab, but in Odisha, it is a subsistence crop.

4. Mixed Farming: Raising of crops along with cattle rearing, poultry, beekeeping, pig-rearing, sericulture, aquaculture etc is called mixed farming.

5. Plantation Farming: In this type of farming, a single crop is cultivated over a large area. Coffee, Tea and Rubber are the important plantation crops of India.